Main Article Content
Environmental problems were faced, and one of them is the accumulation of Sulphur and its compounds in the atmosphere and through the atmosphere, it accumulates in the soil and then the underground plants. In the atmosphere Sulphur it is present in the form of aerosols and acid precipitation. Volatile Sulphur compounds are released by the combustion of fossil fuels and volcanic eruption also produces Sulphur oxides. Deficiency of Sulphur produces paling of plants and denaturing of some enzymes that are then fulfilled by using the fertilizers of Sulphur. Soil also has an adverse effect when particulate matter or Sulphur aggregates in the plants and their physiological and biological development is retarded. Most of the industrial processes contain Sulphur compounds like thiol, thiophene, oxides of Sulphur etc. Structural and chemical mutation occurs when particulate substances induce into the plants and productivity and efficiency of that plant is reduced. The impact of acid rain in places with high quantities of mixed air pollutants has yet to be determined. Acid inputs appear to be affecting several techniques in field soils. These must be measured in terms of plant output. SO2 enters the leaves via stomata and quickly dissolves in Apoplastic water, producing mostly Sulphite (SO3)-2, bisulphite (HSO-3), and H+ ions. SO2 phytotoxicity has been attributed to Sulphite and bisulphite ion interactions with different chemicals. If the quantities are not too high, most leaves can detoxify Sulphite and bisulphite by oxidizing them to less harmful Sulphate ions via a series of processes. SO2 absorbed by foliage may undergo reduction conversion, including absorption into organic Sulphur compounds and release from the leaves as H2S. The oxidizing or reducing route of SO2 in plants is determined by plant species, soil Sulphur content, SO2 amount and persistence, and plant growth conditions.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Amdur, M. O., Melvin Jr, W. W., & Drinker, P. (1953). Effects of inhalation of sulphur dioxide by man. Lancet, 758-759.CrossRef
Aulakh, M. (2003). Crop responses to sulphur nutrition. In Sulphur in plants (pp. 341-358). Springer.
Bircan, A. Effects of atmospheric sulphur dioxide and particulate matter concentrations on emergency room admissions due to asthma in Ankara. Direct Link.
Bitew, H., & Hymete, A. (2019). The genus Echinops: Phytochemistry and biological activities: A review. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 10. CrossRef
Brychkova, G., Xia, Z., Yang, G., Yesbergenova, Z., Zhang, Z., Davydov, O., . . . Sagi, M. (2007). Sulfite oxidase protects plants against sulfur dioxide toxicity. The Plant Journal, 50(4), 696-709. CrossRef
Burkitbayev, M., Bachilova, N., Kurmanbayeva, M., Tolenova, K., Yerezhepova, N., Zhumagul, M., . . . Demeu, G. (2021). Effect of sulfur-containing agrochemicals on growth, yield, and protein content of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28(1), 891-900. CrossRef
Case, J., & Krouse, H. (1980). Variations in sulphur content and stable sulphur isotope composition of vegetation near a SO 2 source at Fox Creek, Alberta, Canada. Oecologia, 44(2), 248-257. CrossRef
Cook, W., & Maitland, J. (1974). Method of reducing sulphur dioxide emissions from coal. In: Google Patents. Direct Link.
Davidson, C., Phalen, R., & Solomon, P. (2005). Airborne Particulate Matter and Human Health: A Review. Aerosol Science and Technology, 39(8), 737-749. Direct Link.
Dembitsky, V., Abu-Lafi, S., & Hanus, L. (2007). Separation of sulfur-containing fatty acids from garlic, Allium sativum, using serially coupled capillary columns with consecutive nonpolar, semipolar, and polar stationary phases. Acta Chromatographica, 19, 206. Direct Link.
Devendar, P., & Yang, G.-F. (2019). Sulfur-containing agrochemicals. In Sulfur Chemistry (pp. 35-78). Springer. CrossRef
Elliott-Kingston, C., Haworth, M., & McElwain, J. (2014). Damage structures in leaf epidermis and cuticle as an indicator of elevated atmospheric sulphur dioxide in early Mesozoic floras. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 208, 25-42. CrossRef
Ellison, J. M., & Waller, R. E. (1978). A review of sulphur oxides and particulate matter as air pollutants with particular reference to effects on health in the United Kingdom. Environmental research, 16(1-3), 302-325. CrossRef
Eriksen, J. (2009). Soil sulfur cycling in temperate agricultural systems. Advances in Agronomy, 102, 55-89. CrossRef
Frank, N. (1964). Studies on the effects of acute exposure to sulphur dioxide in human subjects. In: SAGE Publications. Direct Link.
Freney, J. (1961). Some observations on the nature of organic sulphur compounds in soil. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(3), 424-432. CrossRef
Geurts, J. J., Sarneel, J. M., Willers, B. J., Roelofs, J. G., Verhoeven, J. T., & Lamers, L. P. (2009). Interacting effects of sulphate pollution, sulphide toxicity and eutrophication on vegetation development in fens: a mesocosm experiment. Environmental Pollution, 157(7), 2072-2081. CrossRef
Goldhader, M. (1975). The sulfur cycles. The sea, 5, 569-655. Direct Link.
Goyal, P., & Singh, M. (1990). The long-term concentration of sulphur dioxide at Taj Mahal due to the Mathura Refinery. Atmospheric Environment. Part B. Urban Atmosphere, 24(3), 407-411.
Hamilton, B. K., Yoo, K. S., & Pike, L. M. (1998). Changes in pungency of onions by soil type, sulphur nutrition and bulb maturity. Scientia Horticulturae, 74(4), 249-256. Direct Link.
Hawkesford, M. J., & De Kok, L. J. (2006). Managing sulphur metabolism in plants. Plant, Cell & Environment, 29(3), 382-395. CrossRef
Hussain, S., Aslam, M. U., Javed, M., Zahra, M., Ejaz, H., Kubra, K.-a., & Mushtaq, I. (2021). Impact of Climatic Changes and Global Warming on Water Availability. Anthropogenic Pollution, 5(2), 57-66. CrossRef
John-Dewole, O., Agunbiade, S., Alao, O., & Arojojoye, O. (2012). Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of extract of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica for medicinal importance. Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research, 3(6), 118-122. Direct Link.
Kapitány, S., Nagy, D., Posta, J., & Béni, Á. (2020). Determination of atmospheric sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid traces by indirect flame atomic absorption method. Microchemical Journal, 104853. CrossRef
Karlsson, G. P., Akselsson, C., Hellsten, S., & Karlsson, P. E. (2011). Reduced European emissions of S and N–effects on air concentrations, deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests. Environmental Pollution, 159(12), 3571-3582. CrossRef
Kim, K.-H., Kabir, E., & Kabir, S. (2015). A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter. Environment international, 74, 136-143. CrossRef
Lanzotti, V., Bonanomi, G., & Scala, F. (2013). What makes Allium species effective against pathogenic microbes? Phytochemistry reviews, 12(4), 751-772. CrossRef
Last, F. (1982). Effects of atmospheric sulphur compounds on natural and man-made terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Agriculture and Environment, 7(3-4), 299-387. CrossRef
Legge, A., & Krupa, S. (2002). Effects of sulphur dioxide. Air pollution and plant life, 2, 135-162. Direct Link.
Linzon, S. (1972). Effects of sulphur oxides on vegetation. The Forestry Chronicle, 48(4), 182-186. CrossRef
Little, R. C. (1957). Sulphur in soils. II.—Determination of the total sulphur content of soil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 8(5), 271-279. CrossRef
Lochman, V., & Fadrhonsova, V. (2004). Development of air pollutant deposition, soil water chemistry and soil on Šerlich research plots, and water chemistry in a surface water source. CrossRef
Malhotra, S., & Hocking, D. (1976). Biochemical and cytological effects of sulphur dioxide on plant metabolism. New phytologist, 76(2), 227-237. CrossRef
McGrath, S., & Zhao, F. (1995). A risk assessment of sulphur deficiency in cereals using soil and atmospheric deposition data. Soil Use and Management, 11(3), 110-114. CrossRef
McLaren, R., Keer, J., & Swift, R. (1985). Sulphur transformations in soils using sulphur-35 labelling. Soil biology and biochemistry, 17(1), 73-79. CrossRef
Nasim, S., Dhir, B., Samar, F., Rashmi, K., & Mujib, A. (2009). Sulphur treatment alters the therapeutic potency of alliin obtained from garlic leaf extract. Food and chemical toxicology, 47(4), 888-892. CrossRef
Nilsson, J. (1988). Critical loads for sulphur and nitrogen. In Air pollution and Ecosystems (pp. 85-91). Springer. Direct Link.
Pedersen, C., Knudsen, L., & Schnug, E. (1998). Sulphur fertilisation. In Sulphur in agroecosystems (pp. 115-134). Springer. CrossRef
Prasad, R. (2014). Major sulphur compounds in plants and their role in human nutrition and health–An Overview. Proc Indian Natn Sci Acad, Direct Link.
Qifu, M., & Murray, F. (1991). Responses of potato plants to sulphur dioxide, water stress and their combination. New phytologist, 118(1), 101-109. CrossRef
Rauhut, D. (2017). Usage and formation of sulphur compounds. In Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must and in Wine (pp. 255-291). Springer. CrossRef
Reddy, M. S., & Venkataraman, C. (2002). Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric Environment, 36(4), 677-697. CrossRef
Roy, A. B., Roy, A. B., & Trudinger, P. (1970). The biochemistry of inorganic compounds of sulphur. Cambridge University Press. Direct Link.
Sahota, T. S. (2006). Importance of sulphur in crop production. Northwest Sci, 9, 10-12. CrossRef
Schäfer, H., Myronova, N., & Boden, R. (2010). Microbial degradation of dimethylsulphide and related C1-sulphur compounds: organisms and pathways controlling fluxes of sulphur in the biosphere. Journal of experimental botany, 61(2), 315-334. CrossRef
Singh, S., Sharma, M., Reddy, K., & Venkatesh, T. (2018). Integrated application of boron and sulphur to improve quality and economic yield in potato. Journal of Environmental Biology, 39(2), 204-210. Direct Link.
Sobolewska, D., Podolak, I., & Makowska-Wąs, J. (2015). Allium ursinum: botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological overview. Phytochemistry reviews, 14(1), 81-97. CrossRef
Tesfaye, A., & Mengesha, W. (2015). Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of garlic (Allium Sativum) and its biological active compounds. Int. J. Sci. Res. Eng. Technol, 1, 142-148. Direct Link.
Thomas, S., Hocking, T., & Bilsborrow, P. (2003). Effect of sulphur fertilisation on the growth and metabolism of sugar beet grown on soils of differing sulphur status. Field Crops Research, 83(3), 223-235. CrossRef
Tingey, D. T., & Reinert, R. A. (1975). The effect of ozone and sulphur dioxide singly and in combination on plant growth. Environmental Pollution (1970), 9(2), 117-125. CrossRef
Toohey, J. I., & Cooper, A. J. (2014). Thiosulfoxide (sulfane) sulfur: new chemistry and new regulatory roles in biology. Molecules, 19(8), 12789-12813. CrossRef
Turalioğlu, F. S. (2005). An assessment on variation of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter in Erzurum (Turkey). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 104(1-3), 119-130. CrossRef
Vidyalakshmi, R., Paranthaman, R., & Bhakyaraj, R. (2009). Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria and Pulse Nutrition- A Review. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(3), 270-278. Direct Link.
Wardencki, W. (1998). Problems with the determination of environmental sulphur compounds by gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 793(1), 1-19. CrossRef
Weigel, H., Adaros, G., & Jäger, H. (1990). Yield responses of different crop species to long-term fumigation with sulphur dioxide in open-top chambers. Environmental Pollution, 67(1), 15-28. CrossRef
Williams, C., & Steinbergs, A. (1959). Soil sulphur fractions as chemical indices of available sulphur in some Australian soils. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(3), 340-352. CrossRef
Yuan, X., Mi, M., Mu, R., & Zuo, J. (2013). Strategic route map of sulphur dioxide reduction in China. Energy Policy, 60, 844-851. CrossRef