Main Article Content


Field experiments were conducted at Yezin farm and Sepin research farm, Yamethin, Myanmar to study the effect of different mulching materials on percent reduction of soil moisture content and physiological traits in Yezin and Yamethin. Randomized complete block design (RCB) was used with three replications from October, 2019 to March, 2020. Rice straw mulching (T2), rice husk mulching (T3), maize stover mulching (T4), mung bean stover mulching (T5), soybean stover mulching (T6) and white plastic polyethylene mulching (T7) and no mulching (T1) were tested with NK-621, variety. At Yezin, the minimum percent reduction of soil moisture content (45.89) was obtained from T2 and (76.79, 58.07) was resulted in T7 whereas the maximum percent reduction of soil moisture contents (76.93, 89.00, 83.93) were recorded from T1 at 14 DAI (Days after irrigation). At tasseling stage, the maximum photosynthesis rates (20.45 µmol m-2s-1) and (21.59 µmol m-2s-1) were observed from T2 at Yezin and Yamethin. At two locations, the maximum stomatal conductance (158.36 mmol m-2s-1) and (204.44 mmol m-2s-1) was observed from T2 at maximum growth stage. At maximum growth stage, the maximum SPAD values (33.90) and (53.98) were obtained from T6 at Yezin and T2 at Yamethin. The maximum five ears weight (1830.6 g) was recorded from rice straw mulching whereas the minimum five ears weight (1326.0 g) was resulted from no mulching at Yamethin. According to the results, rice straw mulching resulted in the highest physiological traits of maize, and white plastic polyethylene mulching recorded the minimum percent reduction of soil moisture content at Yezin and maize stover mulching at Yamethin.

Article Details

How to Cite
Aung, Z. M., & Zar, T. (2022). Mulching as soil moisture conservation to improve physiological traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology, 3(2), 137-145.


Brini, F. A. I. C. A. L. (2017). Photosynthesis under stress-ful environmental conditions: existing challenges. Environment and Photosynthesis: A Future Pro-spect, 68-91.
Bruce, W. B., Miguel, E., Satyanath, S., Dykema, J. A., & Lobell, D. B. (2009). Warming increase the risk of civil war in Africa. Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Science, 106(49), 20670-20674. CrossRef
El-Nemr, M. A. (2006). Effect of mulch types on soil envi-ronmental conditions and their effect on the growth and yield of cucumber plants. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2(2), 67-73.
Farquhar, G. D., & Sharkey, T. D. (1982). Stomatal con-ductance and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 33(1), 317-345. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.33.060182 .001533.
Galanti, R., Cho, A., Ahmad, A., & Radovich, T. (2019). Soil amendments and soil profiling impact on maca-damia growth and yield performance. HortScience, 54(3), 519-527. CrossRef
Gomez, K.A., & Gomez, A. A. (1984). Statistical procedures for agricultural research: John Wiley & Sons. p.704.
Hokmalipour, S., & Darbandi, M.H. (2011). Physiological growth indices in corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(12),1800-1805.
Hu., Y.N, Liu., Y.J, Tang., H.J, Xu., Y.L, & Pan. (2014). Con-tribution of drought to potential crop yield reduc-tion in a wheat-maize rotation region in the North China Plain. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13(7), 1509-1519. CrossRef
Lavinsky, A. O., Magalhães, P. C., Diniz, M. M., Gomes-Jr, C. C., Castro, E. M., & Ávila, R. (2016). Root system traits and its relationship with photosynthesis and productivity in four maize genotypes under drought. Cereal Research Communications, 44(1), 89-97. CrossRef
Lawlor, D. W. (2002). Limitation to photosynthesis in water‐stressed leaves: stomata vs. metabolism and the role of ATP. Annals of Botany, 89(7), 871-885. CrossRef
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation. (2014). Myanmar Agriculture in Brief. Ministry of Agricul-ture, Livestock and Irrigation. Nay Pyi Taw, My-anmar.
Pereira, L. S. (2017). Water, agriculture and food: chal-lenges and issues. Water Resources Management, 31(10), 2985-2999. CrossRef
Shahrokhnia, M., & Sepaskhah, A.R. (2017). Physiologic and agronomic traits in safflower under various ir-rigation strategies, planting methods and nitrogen fertilization. Industrial Crops and Products, 95, 126-139. CrossRef
Singh, G., Joshi, V. K., Chandra, S., Bhatnagar, A., & Dass, A. (2016). Spring maize (Zea mays L.) response to different crop establishment and moisture man-agement practices in north-west plains of India. Research on Crops, 17(2), 226-230.
Suyana, J., Komariah, K., Nugraheni, N., & Lestariningsih, N. P. (2019). The effectiveness of maize stalks mulch on runoff, erosion, sediment enrichment ra-tio (SER), and the growth of cabbage and red beans in andisols, central Java, Indonesia. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 22(3), 675-692.
Teare, I. D, Bates, L. S, & Waldren, R. P. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline in water stresses studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205-207. CrossRef
Wang, X., Fan, J., Xing, Y., Xu, G., Wang, H., Deng, J., & Li, Z. (2019). The effects of mulch and nitrogen ferti-lizer on the soil environment of crop plants. Ad-vances in Agronomy, 153, 121-173. CrossRef
Watanabe, H., & Yoshida, S. (1970). Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on photophosphory-lation in rice in relation to the photosynthetic rate of single leaves. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 16(4), 163-166. CrossRef
Vaezi, B., & Ahmadikhah, A. (2010). Evaluation of drought tolerance of twelve improved barley gen-otypes in dry and warm condition. Journal Of Plant Production (Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources), 17(1), 23-44.